Grace O'Malley the Pirate Queen

History of Co. Mayo in the West of Ireland

In the early 14th century the Clan O’Malley, a great seafaring family, rose to their power. They ruled the southern shore of Clew Bay and the most of barony of Murrisk for over 300 years. They were ruthless pirates and terrorised the ships to and from Galway town, taxing all those who fished off their coasts. They traded with some coastal areas of France and Spain and built a row of castles facing the sea to protect their territory.

Their coat of arm bore the Latin Motto “Terra Marique Putens” (Valiant by sea and land).

The most famous O’Malley was Grainne or Grace O’Malley. She was born around 1530 at Belcare Castle near Westport. She was the only daughter of Eoghan Dubhdara (Black Oak) O’Malley and Margaret or Maeve Ní Mháille. She is commonly known by her Irish nickname Granuaile or Gráinne ni Mhaille, a name reputed to come from the Irish for bald (Mhaol). According to legend Grannie, as a young girl, wanted to join her father on the sea and travel with him to Spain. Her mother disagreed saying she was a girl and not a sailor. Grainne shaved off her hair to disguise herself as a boy. Her father gave in and so Grainne got on board and became Grainne Mhaol.

As a child she lived at her family’s castles of Belclare Castle and Clare Island. She was educated and it is said she spoke Latin.

She was born to be galley captain, sea trader, sea raider, virago, diplomat and a great leader. She had a force of character that comes only once in a century.

When her father died she inherited his large shipping and ‘trading business’ and became Queen of Umaill, chieftain of the Ó Máille clan.

Early Life

In 1546 Grainne, who was 15 years old, married Donal O'Flaherty, son of the Clan O’Flaherty chieftain in Connemara and ally of the O’Malley. They lived at Bunowen castle on the coast near Ballyconneely, Co. Galway. In his company she learned and polished the art of boarding ships. She bore him three children: Owen (Eoghan), Margaret (Méadhbh) and Murrough (Murchadh). When her husband was killed fighting ashore, Granuaile, aged 23, took over his castle and fighting ships. Then she returned to Mayo with many followers.

Later in 1566 she married politically again, this time to Richard Iron Dick of the Burke or Lower MacWilliam family, another land fighter. According to tradition the couple married under Early Irish Law 'for one year certain’. With this marriage Granuaile gained control of Rockfleet Castle near Newport. She divorced him after one year calling out a window to Iron Dick: "Richard Burke, I dismiss you”, but in English documents they remained married.

They had one son Tiobóid na Long, "Toby of the Ships”, born around 1567.

She was able to manage to keep his castle and remained ally of Iron Dick.

Legendary Sea Captain

Many stories grew up around her.

She gave birth to her son Tiobóid at sea, and within an hour, when her galley was boarded by Algerian pirates, she, wrapped in a blanket, appeared on deck leading her ships into battle and so her crew, rallied again, captured the pirate vessel.

She had control on several castles including Rockfleet in Clew Bay, Doona on Blacksod, Kildavnet on Achill Island and the O’Malley Castle on Clare Island.

It was there Granuaile lived in summer. Clare Island was her stronghold, a place she loved so much and, above all, strategically placed at the centre of her sea kingdom. It is said she used to tie the mooring ropes of her galley to her bed through her bed-room window, ready to get on board quickly.

From Knockmore she could send or receive messages and repeat them on other towers on Inishturk, Achill or Doona using smoke columns or flags of different colours.

In 1580, after 15 years of battles and negotiations, Iron Dick Burke, Granuaile’s husband, was granted a knighthood by the English governor of Connacht, Sir Nicholas Malby. He was also given the highest title in Connacht, the McWilliam title. When the two men died, the new governor, Sir Richard Bingham, and his men persecuted Granuaile and her followers again. She made a historic journey sailing up the Thames wishing an audience with Queen Elisabeth I. It is said, when they met at Greenwich Palace, Granuaile refused to bow before Queen Elizabeth because she was herself a Queen, and not a subject of the Queen of England. The two women spoke in Latin and came to an agreement. Queen Elisabeth I released her sons Tibbot Burke and Murrough O'Flaherty, and her half-brother, Dónal na Píopa, while Granuaile put an end to piracy against England.

Despite her life full of adventures Granuaile lived to an old age. She died in 1603 at Rockfleet Castle and was buried in the Cistercian Abbey on Clare Island.

After her death, she became an Irish folk hero of almost legendary status.